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Advances in Geosciences An open-access journal for refereed proceedings and special publications
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Volume 45 | Copyright
Adv. Geosci., 45, 259-265, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-45-259-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  05 Sep 2018

05 Sep 2018

Distribution of minor metallic elements within waste incineration bottom ashes defined by WDX/EDX spectrometry

Piotr R. Kowalski, Monika Kasina, and Marek Michalik Piotr R. Kowalski et al.
  • Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 3a, 30-387 Kraków, Poland

Abstract. A number of metallic elements are inherited from waste during thermal treatment and concentrated in the incineration residues. Because the major part of the incineration residue mass are bottom ashes (BAs), their study is of great importance from the point of view of their environmental impact or resource potential. The general focus of this study was on the minor metallic elements present in BAs. They co-occurred with main phases and often determined the inherited potential of the material. The analysed residues were produced from municipal and industrial waste. The BAs were studied using spectroscopic methods of chemical microanalysis: energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDX). Both the main and minor metallic elements were concentrated in metallic components. They were typically present as separate grains and metallic inclusions (commonly in the glass matrix of the grains) ranging in size from several to hundreds of micrometres. Despite Fe-, Al- and Cu-rich occurrences, metallic elements rarely occurred in fragments composed of a single element. Their main forms of occurrence were alloy grains, admixtures in polymetallic occurrences and micro-inclusions in glassy matrix. The content of particular elements in those forms was investigated and described in greater detail. Even though two types of bottom ash were formed from different types of waste and differences in used technologies were present, the obtained materials contained metallic components having similar attributes. Elevated concentrations of not only Fe and Al, but also Ti, Cu and Zn, allow us to consider bottom ash as a promising material from the point of view of metallic elements' recovery (e.g. by the physical concentration of elements through gravity or magnetic methods).

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This study focus on minor metallic elements distribution in waste incineration bottom ashes (BAs) using chemical microanalysis methods to study the BAs resource potential. BAs contained from 8.8 wt % to 23.1 wt % of metallic elements concentrated mostly in metallic fragments and metallic inclusions (usually composed of more than one metal). Their recovery might be possible, however, due to physical properties of metallic components, advanced methods of BAs processing need to be applied.
This study focus on minor metallic elements distribution in waste incineration bottom ashes...
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